聖經挪亞方舟洪水故事只是來自猶太教神話故事。 

何宗陽編撰

     

諾亞方舟(Noah’s Ark),又譯挪亞方舟,是《希伯來聖經·創世紀》中的故事,傳說一艘根據上帝的指示而建造的大船,其依原說記載為方形船隻,但也有許多的形象繪畫描繪為近似船形船隻,其建造的目的是為了讓諾亞與他的家人,以及世界上的各種陸上生物能夠躲避一場上帝因故而造的大洪水災難,記載中諾亞方舟花了120年才建成,這段故事分別被紀錄在《希伯來聖經·創世紀》(《舊約聖經·創世紀》)以及伊斯蘭教的《古蘭經》。

根據底本學說的推論,《創世紀》中的方舟故事,可能具有許多相似但分別獨立的來源;而一般的正統猶太教與基督教,則認為方舟的故事只有一位作者,聖經直譯主義者認為方舟確實停留在土耳其東北方厄德爾省的亞拉拉特山區。亞伯拉罕諸教對於故事中某些問題已經有了神學上的解釋,例如將方舟解釋為教會的預表。

在美索不達米亞文明中,也有與《創世紀》的記載平行的故事,例如蘇美爾神話中記載一位叫祖蘇德拉的人,受神明的警告而建造了一艘船艦,並因此逃過了一場將人類消滅的洪水,此外在其他地區,也有許多相似的故事,是世界上廣泛流傳的相似傳說故事之一。

 

挪亞方舟停泊之地 

   

在外高加索一帶,曾有不少地方聲稱是挪亞方舟停泊之地,或有相關的民間傳說在流傳,當中比較著名的有納希契凡。2000年代初,香港的基督教學術演講者梁燕城在考證過當時流行的傳說,以及當時流傳的衛星圖片,斷定方舟最後在土耳其及亞美尼亞邊境的亞拉臘山山頂停下。

為解開方舟之謎,基督教的挪亞方舟國際事工自從首支華人探索隊於2004年首次登山尋找方舟後,計劃進行方舟探索。2006年8月,一名庫爾德族的探索家於亞拉臘山上一個洞內發現不明物體,懷疑是木塊。他立刻聯絡相熟的香港探索隊隊員,並於9月把樣本送往香港作科學分析。香港大學地球科學系應用地球科學中心對該樣本進行岩相分析,鑒定它為石化木結構。

香港的馬灣公園館內的導覽冊子根據這個研究把挪亞方舟當作歷史看待,引來外界不滿。

2010年4月28日國外媒體報導,香港和土耳其的探險隊員表示,他們在土耳其東部的亞拉臘山附近找到了傳說中的諾亞方舟的船身殘骸,測試發現這些殘骸的年代可以追溯至4800年前,即《創世紀》中所描述的諾亞方舟的存在時期。香港導演楊永祥說:「雖然我們不能百分之百確定它就是諾亞方舟,但可能性達到99.9%。」。但這種說法也受到英國牛津大學古代史講師尼古拉斯‧普塞爾(Nicholas Purcell)質疑,他說:「如果公元前2800年歐亞大陸已被3000多米深的洪水所覆蓋,在那之前已存在數個世紀的埃及和美索不達米亞文明如何可以生存?」。

英國考古學家邁克‧柏亞(Mike Pitt)表示,聯合探險隊尚未提供任何有說服性的証據。他說:“如果那里發生過洪水,能在4800年前將一艘巨輪升高至山腰,那我認為世界上可能存在這種洪水的地質証據,問題是沒有。”( 探險者稱在土耳其發現諾亞方舟殘骸. 新浪網. 2010-04-28 [2010-04-28].   探險隊自稱在土耳其找到諾亞方舟遭質疑. 新浪網. 2010-04-29 [2010-04-29].  )

 2010年5月1日有一位叫 Randall Price 的宗教教授稱影音使團稱有關發現是偽造(this is all reported to be a fake)。他的電郵指出相片全是在黑海某地拍攝,在2008年夏天有10名庫爾德人告訴他,一名中國人委聘的嚮導,聘請他們把黑海附近的木樑搬到亞拉臘山山洞。

有傳言有中學迫人去看那些方舟見證,但係影音使團就連基督教人士也反對,所以這是不被那些基督教及考古學所認同,仲俾基督教人士話不道德。

結論:

筆者認為挪亞方舟大洪水故事來自猶太教神話,地質學及古生物學均無證據支持此傳說。

洪水神話(聖經初驗不合格: 聖經創世紀之創世神話及洪水神話都是抄借融合來的。)

聖經創世紀神話中洪水的傳說來源於蘇美爾人、巴比倫人的洪水傳說,和最早記載的蘇美爾人有關朱蘇德拉的洪水傳說最為接近: (The unspoken Bible, 2009)

蘇美爾人的洪水傳說:眾神造了人類,做了動物,讓他們繁殖。眾神因某原因要毀滅人類,最後決定用洪水。其中一個神把這事用計告訴國王朱蘇德拉(Ziusudra),洪水發生時朱蘇德拉在船上,船上有很多動物,洪水過後朱蘇德拉在大船上鑽開一個洞,後來動物都回到地上,朱蘇德拉也把牛和無數的羊獻為燔祭。

他們想法是從他們鄰居的創造神話借來的

聖經與埃及,希臘和巴比倫神話相似性是太接近到不僅是一個巧合而已。作家並不是孤立於其他文化,和他們並不是靠坐在一些山頂上沉思上帝而得到他們的想法的,他們想法是從他們鄰居的創造神話借來的。這種的技術術語被稱為所謂的融合(syncretism)(The unspoken Bible, 2009)

古代的人类(古代文明)往往生活在适合耕作的大河流域,而在这些地方洪水泛滥是很常见的事情,故而常有洪水的故事和传说。由於大多的大洪水傳說是帶有民族性,所以它未必與基督教有關。很多基督徒聲稱大洪水是上帝用來毀滅世界的腐敗人類。但不見得世界上其他民族有大洪水之傳說。因此有部份人士認為,基督徒將世界的大洪水傳說串聯在一起,不過是一種穿鑿附會和一廂情願。

況且,根據《希伯來聖經·創世紀》推出挪亞方舟洪水年代大約是公元前(2337? 2345?)年,如果挪亞方舟洪水故事不是來自猶太教神話,那,先不談它如何放在”  人從那裡來? —地球生物進化全景史”中的那個位置,它又如何解釋下列世界史年表 (公元前)所發生的一切史蹟?

 

世界史年表 (公元前) 

  • 約300、400萬年前:人類在地球上出現。
  • 約200、300萬-1萬年前:人類舊石器時代。打制石器流行,已使用火,晚期大量使用骨、角器。狩獵和採集業發展,血緣家族及母系氏族公社產生。
  • 約170萬年前:元謀人生活在今中國元謀一帶,已能製造和使用石器。
  • 約70萬年-20萬年前:北京人生活在中國華北地區。
  • 約1.8萬年前:山頂洞人生活在北京人活動過的地區。
  • 約30000年-前10000年:原始宗教出現。
  • 約前12000年-前4000年:人類中石器時代。發明並使用弓箭,細石器廣泛應用,狩獵業發展。
  • 約前8000年-前2000年:人類先後進入新石器時代。磨光加工的石器流行,出現了原始農業和畜牧業。母系氏族公社繁榮。
  • 前6000年:小亞細亞地區出現亞麻和羊毛織物。
  • 約前6000年-前1000年:古代兩河流域、小亞細亞、希臘、羅馬、印度和波斯等地原始宗教和古代宗教盛行。
  • 約前5000年:亞洲西南部和中亞地區開始用冷鍛法加工天然銅。古埃及已使用等臂天平秤,為已知最早的衡器。
  • 約前5000年-前4000年:古埃及出現以太陽和月亮為規律的日曆。
  • 約前5000年-前3300年:河姆渡文化的原始居民生活在長江下游地區。
  • 公元前4000年-前3000年:古埃及、西南亞、南歐、中歐和中國等地先後開始用礦石煉銅。
  • 前3760年:古代猶太人日曆的首年。
  • 前3500年-前3100年:古代兩河流域烏魯克時期。出現陶輪制陶和塔廟建築,創造了楔形文字。古埃及國家(諾姆)形成。出現了象形文字。
  • 前3500年-前3000年:古代兩河流域居民開始使用輪式運輸工具。古埃及人已在農業中使用犁、耙和施肥。
  • 前3372年:古代南美瑪雅年表中最早的日期。
  • 前3100年:古代埃及上埃及統治者美尼斯征服下埃及,初步形成統一國家。埃及早王朝時期開始。
  • 前3000年:古代兩河流域蘇美地區出現奴隸制城市國家。
  • 約前3000年:古埃及出現有槳和帆的船。古埃及人已使用銅鏡。古印度人發明了印章文字。
  • 前3000年-前2300年:愛琴海地區克里特文明出現。
  • 前2686年-前2181年:埃及古王國時期。國家統一完成,大規模興建金字塔。
  • 前27世紀:古代兩河流域蘇美時代的英雄史詩《吉爾伽美什史詩》形成。
  • 前26世紀:古埃及著名的獅身人面像落成。
  • 前2500年:古代蘇美醫學發現礦泉水有癒合特性,古代蘇美人已使用燃油燈,學會烤制麵包和釀製啤酒。歐洲出現編織機。
  • 約前2500年-前1500年:西亞古亞述時期。
  • 前25世紀-前23世紀:古代兩河流域古巴比倫人發明在陶片上刻劃地圖。
  • 前2378年-前2371年:古代蘇美拉格什國王烏魯卡基那在位,進行世界最早的改革。

 

深入讀物:

 挪亞方舟(http://www.exbible.com/ex-bible-31.html)

由於人類各古老文明大都發源於大江、大湖區域,其中很多都遭遇過大洪災,因此很多早期文明都有關於大洪水的神話或傳說,如中國的“女媧補天”神話等。 又由於交通落後並受地理限制,古人多以為整個世界只是他們生活的地區那麼大,因此每當家園被一望無際的大洪水淹沒時,他們很容易把那看成是老天爺在發怒而降罪於普天下。 而現在有些學者卻以世界各地互不相關的大洪水傳說為依據,來證明歷史上曾發生過全球性大洪水,並聲稱那就是《聖經》創世紀中描述的世界大洪水。

19世紀中葉,考古學家奧斯登·萊亞德(Austen H. Layard)帶領的考古小組,在挖掘古亞述帝國首都尼尼微城(Nineveh)的皇宮圖書館遺址時,發現了十二塊大泥板,其內容被專家解讀出來,就是《吉爾伽美甚史詩》(The Epic of Gilgamesh)。 後來考古學家又在不同地點陸續發現了許多不同時期載有《吉爾伽美甚史詩》的泥板,從而使其內容可以得到更加可靠的詮釋 1 。 讓世人驚奇的是,史詩中講述的迦勒底大洪水神話竟與《聖經》創世紀中記述的大洪水故事有近20個類似之處:

  • 人類繁殖太多,荒淫無度,所以讓(眾)神憤怒
  • 於是(眾)神決定用世界大洪水來滅絕所有男人、女人、嬰兒及所有陸上動物和鳥類
  • (眾)神挑選了義人挪亞或烏特納匹什梯姆(Ut-Napishtim)
  • (眾)神命令義人建多層結構的方舟
  • 方舟要塗上松香
  • 方舟要分成許多小房間
  • 方舟只有一扇門
  • 方舟至少要有一扇窗
  • 為了保留生命,方舟要裝載義人、其他一些人、及各類陸上動物
  • 大雨造成的大洪水將陸地淹沒
  • 大洪水將眾山淹沒
  • 洪水退去,方舟泊在中東的一座山上
  • 義人每隔一段時間放一隻鳥出去探問周圍陸地有沒有退水,前面的鳥都飛回來了,最後一隻沒回來,證明它找到了已退水之地
  • 義人和家人登陸後殺牲祭(眾)神
  • (眾)神很喜歡聞祭燔的香氣
  • 義人被(眾)神賜福
  • (眾)神為剛發生的大滅絕感到後悔

最早的蘇美爾版《吉爾伽美甚史詩》創作於公元前2000年或更早,被認為是人類有記載的最古老的故事之一 2 。 《吉詩》中的大洪水傳說,可能反映的是公元前2800年左右發生在美索不達米亞地區的大洪水,或公元前5500年左右的黑海大洪水事件。 大部分《聖經》學者認為,<創世紀>中的大洪水故事是猶太人在被亞述人或被巴比倫人奴役時期從亞述人或巴比倫人那里傳授得來並經過改編後形成的。 天主教主流派也認為,<創世紀>中的大洪水故事是藉用了《吉爾伽美甚史詩》大洪水神話的主要內容 3

一、兩個不同版本的故事

很多人在閱讀舊約創世大洪水故事時,總是越讀越糊塗,覺得前後對接不上。 理查德·弗萊得曼(Richard E. Friedman)教授在《誰寫的聖經》一書中告訴我們,就像《聖經》中許多其它故事一樣,此故事又是由兩個不同版本的故事拼湊而成的。 創6:5-8;7:1-5,7,10,12,16b,17-20,22-23;8:6,8-12,13b,20-22屬於一個版本,出自於我們前面介紹過的耶和華派;故事其餘部分則屬於另一個版本,出自於神派 4 。 在兩個版本之間還存在著一定的重複和不一致,例如:1.洪水是何時在地上氾濫的?第一版本中,挪亞一家人進入方舟七天后,洪水才氾濫在地上( 創7:10 );而第二版本卻說在挪亞六百歲生日那天,即他全家人進入方舟的當天洪水就已氾濫在地上( 創7:6,11,13 )。2.神命令挪亞選多少動物上方舟?第一版本中,神吩咐挪亞:“ 凡潔淨的畜類,你要帶七公七母。不潔淨的畜類,你要帶一公一母 。”(創7:2);而第二版本中,神命令他:“ 凡有血肉的活物,每樣兩個,一公一母,你要帶進方舟,好在你那裡保全生命。 ”(創6:19)3.洪水共持續了多長時間?第一版本中,洪水氾濫在地上40天( 創7:4,12,17 );而第二版本中,洪水共持續了150天( 創7:11;7:24-8:4 )。4.地面是什麼時候幹的?第一版本中,地面的水是在正月初一干的( 創8:13 );而在第二版本中,地面直到2月27日才幹( 創8:14 )。


參考文獻:1. Heidel, Alexander. The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels . 2nd Ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1949. 1.2. 同1,15頁。3. “ Genesis: Chapter6, Footnotes 5” New American Bible . December 09, 2002. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. April 8, 2006. http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/genesis/genesis6.htm .4. Friedman, Richard E. Who Wrote the Bible? New York: Summit Books, 1987. 54-59.

挪亞是否是華人的祖先

http://www.exbible.com/ex-bible-34.html

按照《聖經》創世大洪水的記載,挪亞理所當然地成了現代人類共同的祖先。 有人說華人是挪亞的兒子閃的後代,還有人說是他另一兒子雅弗的後代,但這些都是憑空猜測,因為在《聖經》中華人是不存在的——如同被神徹底遺忘的民族。 在舊約中,耶和華總是對他所喜愛的人許願,要讓他們的子孫後代像天上的星星和地上的沙子一樣繁多。 在如今的地球上,中華一族最盛,然而華人的傳承在《聖經》中卻找不到記載;反過來,猶太民族人口稀少,而他們的傳承在《聖經》中卻記述得清清楚楚。

於是,中外就有一些人想在中國人自己的歷史文獻中找到證據。 但迄至今日,他們的嘗試都很不成功,出示的所謂證據大部分是些牽強附會的文字拼湊。 例如,把《天問》中“登立為帝”的“登”解釋為亞當,把《老子》中的“夷希微”解釋為耶和華,把女媧當作夏娃或挪亞,等等。 顯然這些都毫無說服力,然而終於有一個字讓他們感覺到很有根據和份量,那就是在華人信徒中廣泛流傳的“船”字。 他們把它解釋為“舟加八口”,八口就是指挪亞一家八口,以此證明挪亞大洪水的存在,以及我們的祖先是根據挪亞方舟的故事創造了“船”字。

“舟”是個獨立完整的字,“船”是由它衍生而來。 像“鉛”和“沿”一樣,“船”的右部只是個聲部,裡面的“八”是由“兩點水”筆劃演變而來,而不是“八”的意思。 《說文·舟部》曰:“舟者,船也”段注:“古人言舟,漢人言船”。 “舟”在殷虛甲骨文中就已出現,而“船”在《老子》及《十三經》中都還不存在。 孔子是中國第一位教育家,在當時可稱得上學通古今,而他都不曾使用“船”字。 顯然,“舟加八口”又是一個拆(猜)字遊戲而已。中國史前大洪水神話主要是說:共工撞翻天柱,頓時天塌地陷,天河傾瀉,導致了天下大洪水。 女媧同情人類的苦難,就融煉七彩石來補天。 這與《聖經》中草菅人命的大洪水故事有天壤之別,故事中也沒有方舟的影子。 女媧與挪亞也是玉瓦之別:一個是女性,另一個是男性;一個是頂天立地,造物造人的神氏,另一個卻是把自己和動物一同關閉起來,束手等待洪水消退的凡夫俗子。《聖經》中的創世大洪水年代(按詹姆斯·阿瑟主教的推算,在公元前2349年左右),中國正處於考古學上的龍山文化時期(約公元前2500-2000年,傳說的炎帝、黃帝所處時期)。 龍山文化上承仰韶文化(約公元前4800-2500年)和大汶口文化(約公元前4300-2400年),下啟二里頭文化(約公元前2000-1600年,相當於傳說中大禹建立的夏朝),是華夏文明形成的重要時期。 承載這段上下幾千年曆史的古文化遺址,星羅棋布地坐落在黃河中下游及淮河流域的廣大地區,被發掘的珍貴文物資料層出不窮,它們清晰地再現了當時各種文化相互影響、整合的複雜關係以及此消彼長的變遷路線,但從中完全找不到整個華夏文明的形成曾被特大洪水摧毀或中斷的跡象。 比如,著名考古學家蔡運章教授在《遠古刻畫符號與中國文字的起源》一文中指出:中國古代自裴李崗文化(仰韶文化的前期文化,約公元前7000-5000年,傳說的伏羲氏所處時期)至漢魏時期器物上常見的單字、刻畫符號和圖形文字,分佈廣泛,一脈相承。 這些符號和文字大都獨立刻鑄在器物(或銘文)的特殊位置上用來反映八卦之象,是中華先民"制器尚象"習俗的產物和反映 15 。全球華人從文化意義上都認同自己是龍的傳人,世界其他民族也很尊重我們這一文化傳統,但是,如果有人根據《易經》、《山海經》等古籍中的記載,就聲稱中華民族在歷史上真乃神龍的後代,而其他民族都是蠻夷的子孫,這必然會貽笑於天下;同理,古猶太人認為自己與神之間有種特殊的契約關係,我們也尊重他們這一文化傳統,然而如果有人堅持以《聖經》的記載為根據,就聲稱猶太人確是神的選民,而中華民族及其他許多民族都是在神面前可忽略不記(計)的二等公民,這是不是同樣荒唐可笑呢? 


參考文獻:15. 蔡運章:《遠古刻畫符號與中國文字的起源》.《中原文物》, 2001(4).

 

創世大洪水是否是史實 (http://www.exbible.com/ex-bible-32.html)

根據《聖經》創世大洪水神話故事的來源、粗糙的編寫形式以及互相矛盾的內容,我們就足可懷疑其歷史真實性了。 《新天主教百科全書》在介紹<創世紀>大洪水時說:沒有任何科學的、地理的或歷史的證據顯示,有一場單一的大洪災曾把古代美索不達美亞地區的文明徹底摧毀,更不用說摧毀整個人類 5 。 然而,很多保守的基督教學者卻仍在宣傳整部《聖經》都是史實,認為神話可以是歷史的一部分,或歷史中曾經充滿著神蹟。 他們會毫不猶豫地認為燒香拜佛是迷信,而耶和華喜歡聞燔祭的馨香又是史實;他們相信古代的蛇會說話,也相信耶和華曾經使紅海分開讓以色列人脫離危險,卻又無法解釋為什麼現代的蛇不再說話了,以及為什麼耶和華再也不拯救天災人禍中的受害者了。

(一)現代挪亞方舟的故事 2000年2月17日傍晚,羅亞民正在書房玩電腦遊戲《封神榜》。 突然,哪吒忽地從屏幕中跳出來,變成了一個閃閃發光的天使站在他的書桌上。 羅亞民當時嚇得趴在地上一動不敢動。 然後聽見那天使說:“義人羅亞民不用怕,我是神派來的,神有重要的旨意要傳達於你。”羅亞民慌忙地點了點頭。 那天使接著又說:“人類道德沉淪、物慾橫流,神決意放棄地球上這些無可救藥的敗類。神看你是義人,所以你已被赦免。從現在開始,你要準備造好一個萬噸級的宇宙飛船。在2077年的今天,帶著你全家人,再選700童男童女以及7對各類動物,還有各種植物的種子,另外準備7台載有人類一切知識的超級電腦,一齊帶進飛船。到時,神會讓整個地球上的生命葬於核戰爭的火海之中。你要帶領飛船在火星的’新居山’上降落,在那裡重啟人類新紀元。請記住,那裡離天堂非常非常近。”說完這話,那天使又忽地回到電腦中還原成哪吒。 過了許久,羅亞民才回過神來,就好像是做了個夢,但他發誓那絕不是幻覺。一般來說,人們一定不會因羅亞民信誓旦旦就相信他講的故事。 首先,人類自從啟蒙以來,至今沒有任何人證明見到過天使。 其次,目前連許多發達國家都還沒有實力把人送上太空,只憑羅亞民個人的力量又怎麼可能?更何況是要造萬噸級的飛船!最後,絕大部分人都不會相信神要用核武器來消滅人類及地球上所有的生命。 然而,在舊約創世大洪水故事中類似這些匪夷所思的事情都有存在。人類歷史上公認的最大木製船是中國明代的鄭和寶船,也就是著名的鄭和下西洋龐大船隊的旗艦船。 寶船長約125米,寬約50米(44丈長,18丈寬,高度不詳),採用了包括鍬釘、鐵鋦、鏟釘、螞蟥釘等綜合榫接工藝技術 6 。 當時中國的造船水平遠遠高過西方,在鄭和下西洋87年後,哥倫布用於發現美洲新大陸的船與鄭和寶船相比,就像剛破殼的小雞與大母雞之比。 《聖經》中記載的挪亞方舟,長約150米,寬25米,高15米,其平面大小竟達鄭和寶船的60%。 在四千多年前造這麼大的船,比現代人造航母還難上百倍,只靠挪亞一家的力量又如何能達成?即使挪亞造出了方舟,他​​一家八口能駕駛和驅動它嗎?根據《馬可波羅遊記》記載,元朝時架駛一條大船需要二三百名水手,僅一個十幾米長的櫓就要三名水手來劃動。 由此可知,挪亞一家人根本不可能推動和控制一個載滿動物、排水量近萬噸的大船。按《聖經》上所說,他們進入方舟後,就沒有人分管掌舵和划船之事,而完全任由方舟在大洪水中漂游達150天,最後停靠在亞拉臘山(創8:3-4 )。 方舟在水勢浩大的洪水中盲目遊蕩近半年,竟仍然停留在原出發地附近,即中東地區。

(三)挪亞一家如何能安置無數的動物 據美國科學院院士、著名古生物學家大衛·勞普(David M. Raup)在《物種滅絕–壞基因還是壞運氣》一書中介紹:地球上曾經存在50-500億種物種,而目前地球上只剩下約4 000萬種物種,就是說,只有大約千分之一的物種仍幸運地生存著 7 。 又據美國自然歷史博物館館長昆蟲學家戴維·格雷摩迪(David Grimaldi),與古生物學家、昆蟲學家邁克爾·安格爾(Michael S. Engel)博士在《昆蟲的進化》一書中介紹,目前地球上至少存在著500萬種昆蟲 8 。 我們根據這些數據保守估計,地球上曾經至少有10億種動物。 全世界的生物學家,用了幾個世紀才命名了大約150萬種動物,那麼四千多年前的挪亞如何能知道世上所有種類的動物?然而,從<創世紀>中神吩咐挪亞選各類動物中的一公一母上船的記載便可以判斷,古猶太人連無性動物和社群動物的知識都沒有。 再說,挪亞他們又如何能在短時間內把所有種類的動物從世界各地收集、搬運到中東?據<創世紀>記載,他們是在發洪水的當天把所有的動物裝上船的,這就是說,他們就算不吃不睡,每個人也必須在0.04秒之內就安置好一種動物。 然而,即使讓他們空手從十多米高的方舟向地面走個來回,也至少需要幾分鐘的時間。另外,僅憑挪亞方舟的大小,也無法為10億種動物提供基本的生存空間。 眾所周知,許多動物對環境及食物的要求非常高,如中國的大熊貓只吃竹類植物;企鵝及北極熊只生活在極寒地區;有些土棲性昆蟲,如果環境相對濕度小於100%,就可能因失水而死亡;像螞蟻和蜜蜂等動物需依靠社群組織來維持生存,等等。 顯然,挪亞他們無法為這類動物提供這些基本條件。還有很多動物只生活在特定的大陸,洪水消退以後,它們怎麼能夠跨洋過海回到原來大陸呢?比如,由於山高水險,早期人類都花了幾十萬年才遷徙到世界各地,而蚯蚓和蝸牛又如何能在幾千年之內就從土耳其的亞拉臘山頂一路爬到全球各地呢?為了淹死陸上所有的動物,大水漫過了天下所有的高山(創7:19 )。 150天后,當大洪水開始消退時,方舟就停靠在亞拉臘山上,由此可以斷定亞拉臘山當時的高度應該接近世界上最高山峰的高度。 目前世界上海拔最高的山峰是喜馬拉雅山山脈的珠穆朗瑪峰,根據中國科學家2005年的測量,其海拔高度是8 848米,而亞拉臘山現在的高度是大約5 000米。科學家分析指出,在大約6千萬年前,由於印度板塊向北漂移與歐亞板塊碰撞,印度板塊後來插入地幔。 印度大陸就像一塊楔子一樣插在西藏下面,因其向北移動受西藏阻擋,於是慢慢把西藏擠壓、提升,就形成了喜馬拉雅山山脈 9 。 目前印度板塊和歐亞板塊仍在以每年5.08厘米的速度互相擠壓,珠穆朗瑪峰每年仍然增高大約1.27厘米 10 。我們可以合理地推測,在過去的5 000年間,喜馬拉雅山山脈基本上也是以這種極慢的速度在增高。 由此可以估算出,在傳說的挪亞大洪水時期,珠峰的高度與現在的高度相差不會超過200米。 同時,沒有任何證據表明在近5 000年內土耳其的亞拉臘山地區發生過激烈的地質大塌陷,所以我們可以肯定,當時的亞拉臘山就像現在一樣,比當時的珠穆朗瑪峰至少低幾千米。 那麼在大洪水剛開始消退時,挪亞方舟所停靠的山峰就不可能是亞拉臘山。

(五)地球上如何增加幾倍的水量 如果當時大洪水高過了珠穆朗瑪峰,根據計算,大洪水在地球上增加的水量大約是現在地球上海洋總水量的3.3倍。 根據創世紀7:12記載,那場大雨下了40晝夜。 就是說,在連續近一個半月的時間裡,全球平均每小時的降雨量達9.2米,真可謂天翻地覆。 那麼,這麼多的水是從哪裡來的,又消失到哪裡去了?創世紀7:11說:“ 當挪亞六百歲,二月十七日那一天,大淵的泉源都裂開了,天上的窗戶也敞開了 ”。 然而眾所周知,天上並沒有什麼天窗,雨是從雲層降下來的,而云層則是由地球表面的水蒸發形成的。 “大淵”(the great deep)是指大海,但海底下並沒有巨大的“泉源”。科學家利用地震波、地質鑽探、火山採樣、高溫高壓試驗、宇宙塵埃成份的分析,以及地球磁場學、天體引力學等綜合研究的成果,對地球內部的結構和成份已經有了比較詳細的了解。 地球由三層組成:最上一層叫地殼,主要是由鈣、鈉及鋁化矽礦等組成的岩石結構;中間層叫地幔,主要由鎂、鐵、鋁、矽和氧等元素組成,它的底層是固態,漫漫地往上變成膠狀;最內層叫地核,它的中心主要是壓力極高的固態鐵,其外層約90%是融化的鐵,其餘主要是融化的硫(見圖3)。 顯然,在地殼以下根本不存在大量的氫元素,因而不可能有大量的水存在。圖3.地球內部結構和成份如此高的洪水對地上的植物、湖里和海裡的生物會產生什麼影響呢?喜歡養花的朋友一定知道,有的花草非常嬌嫩,因不小心多澆了些水,或因陽光不充足,它們都很容易死掉。 在8 848米高的水壓下,被鹽水浸泡半年,加之沒有陽光和空氣,原來在地面上的植物,很少有能夠生存下來的。 沒有了這些植物,方舟上保存下來的動物和人就會因找不到食物而不能生存。 湖里、河裡的淡水魚類也會因海水侵入而死亡。 目前發現的有魚類生存的最深海洋紀錄是8 370米,因此一旦在地球上增加8 848米高的水位,絕大部分海洋裡的動物就會因壓力和光線的原因向上逃離原來的生存空間,其中一定有很多會因為找不到食物而滅絕。 海底下的許多植物也會因為巨大的壓力而死亡。 然而,所有這些都不是《聖經》中的神想做的(他只想消滅所有陸上動物),更不符合我們目前看到的實際情況。 

幾乎沒有人會相信羅亞民的現代神話,但為什麼有很多人對《聖經》中更為荒誕的神話卻堅信不移呢?大家都熟悉“三人成虎”和“皇帝的新衣”的故事,它們生動地向世人說明了這樣一個道理:只要把不存在的事反復向世人傳播,最終很多人都會把它當成事實。 這就是所謂的戈培爾定律:謊言重複一千遍就成了真理。 如果世界各國政府及主要媒體,把羅亞民的現代神話不斷地作正面的報導和宣傳,再找一些人出來“作證”,就一定會有成千上萬的人信以為真。 經過媒體的長期宣染,已經有很多人相​​信美國神秘的51區軍事基地藏有外星人,這就是一個很好的例子。事實上,世界上的幾大宗教都是在古代統治者的大力支持下才發展壯大起來的。 許多虔誠的信徒,在自己的小孩心智未開,還缺乏獨立判斷是非能力的時候,就開始向他們灌輸自己的信仰,其結果是,信仰就像有了基因的遺傳功能一樣,​​一代一代香火不斷。 一些強勢文明的宗教,更是依靠其強大的政治、經濟實力,以各種手段向弱勢文明和群體擴張。 歷史上,有些宗教還發展出恐嚇的功能,甚至用法律和社會規範來約束信徒,讓信徒完全不敢懷疑教會所教的任何教義,以至於盲目崇拜。 如此看來,一個人不被外界干擾,始終保持獨立客觀的判斷力,是件很不容易的事。


參考文獻:5. New Catholic Encyclopedia . Edited by Catholic University of America. Vol.5. Washington, DC: Thomson/Gale, 2003. 765.6. Levathes, Louise E. When China Ruled the Seas . New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. 78-80.7. Raup, David M. Extinction: Bad Genes or Bad Luck? New York: WWNorton & Company, 1991. 3.8. Grimaldi, David and Engel, Michael S. Evolution of the Insects . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 15.9. Zurick, David N.“The Himalaya”Magill’s survey of science. Earth science series. Vol.2. ed. Frank N. Magill. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press,1990. 1073.10. “珠穆朗瑪峰地理概況: 珠峰地質與地貌”中國國家測繪局, March 06th, 2010. http://www.sbsm.gov.cn/article//ztzl/zffc/zs/200710/20071000002344.shtml .

 

 

Understanding Noah’s Flood(http://whywontgodhealamputees.com/noah-story.htm)
Just about every kid in the United States has heard the story of Noah by the age of five. It’s a pretty simple story. And kids love animals, so this story is especially interesting. If you ask a kid to recite the story to you, it goes something like this:

Once upon a time there was a man named Noah. God tells Noah to build a big boat. The animals get on the boat two by two. There’s a big flood. And everyone lives happily ever after.

Lots of kids have a toy, a puzzle, a poster or a little storybook that illustrates the whole thing.

Of course these posters and puzzles, and the story in most kids’ heads, leave out one little detail. They gloss over the total extermination on all other life on earth. Billions of animals and millions of humans are senselessly murdered in the flood. Anything and everything that is alive on earth perishes unless it is on the boat. That is a whole lot of death and destruction, and most kids don’t need to hear about that. Far too gruesome, especially if we were to illustrate all those floating, bloated bodies. But since it is God doing the murdering, and since we leave out all the death, then somehow it is OK.

The next time you see a child playing with a Noah’s Ark Play Set or puzzle, say to the parent, “Ah yes, the uplifting story where God massacres every living thing on the planet, including millions of men and women and every single living child. How charming." See what the parent’s response is. In many cases the response will be silence, because the parent has never thought about it.

The Story

Noah’s flood is described in the Bible’s book of Genesis, chapters 6 through 9. Here are two quotes from these chapters that touch on the high points:

So make yourself an ark of cypress wood; make rooms in it and coat it with pitch inside and out. This is how you are to build it: The ark is to be 450 feet long, 75 feet wide and 45 feet high. Make a roof for it and finish the ark to within 18 inches of the top. Put a door in the side of the ark and make lower, middle and upper decks. I am going to bring floodwaters on the earth to destroy all life under the heavens, every creature that has the breath of life in it. Everything on earth will perish. But I will establish my covenant with you, and you will enter the ark-you and your sons and your wife and your sons’ wives with you. You are to bring into the ark two of all living creatures, male and female, to keep them alive with you. Two of every kind of bird, of every kind of animal and of every kind of creature that moves along the ground will come to you to be kept alive. You are to take every kind of food that is to be eaten and store it away as food for you and for them."

Noah did everything just as God commanded him.

And:

On that very day Noah and his sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth, together with his wife and the wives of his three sons, entered the ark. They had with them every wild animal according to its kind, all livestock according to their kinds, every creature that moves along the ground according to its kind and every bird according to its kind, everything with wings. Pairs of all creatures that have the breath of life in them came to Noah and entered the ark. The animals going in were male and female of every living thing, as God had commanded Noah. Then the Lord shut him in.

For forty days the flood kept coming on the earth, and as the waters increased they lifted the ark high above the earth. The waters rose and increased greatly on the earth, and the ark floated on the surface of the water. They rose greatly on the earth, and all the high mountains under the entire heavens were covered. The waters rose and covered the mountains to a depth of more than twenty feet. Every living thing that moved on the earth perished-birds, livestock, wild animals, all the creatures that swarm over the earth, and all mankind. Everything on dry land that had the breath of life in its nostrils died. Every living thing on the face of the earth was wiped out; men and animals and the creatures that move along the ground and the birds of the air were wiped from the earth. Only Noah was left, and those with him in the ark.

The waters flooded the earth for a hundred and fifty days.

Does this story make sense? Did this really happen? Did an omniscient God write this story, or did primitive goat herders make it up out of thin air? Let’s think it through using common sense.

The first question to ask is, “When did this happen?" The Bible provides the answer. The Bible contains a genealogy for Jesus that stretches all the way from Jesus to Adam. The Bible lists ages for all the people involved, and when they were born. Therefore, since we know when Jesus was born, it is easy to track back to the date of Noah’s flood. The great deluge happened in 2348 BCE. That’s a very recent event in human history — only 4,350 or so years ago.

What this means is that the planet was wiped clean just 4,350 years ago, and then the ark came to rest on dry ground. Out of the ark came eight people (Noah, his wife, his three sons and their respective wives) along with pairs of animals representing every species that we see on earth today.

The Questions

Have you ever thought about that? Just 4,350 years ago, there were only eight people alive on planet earth. For any intelligent person, this raises quite a few questions, with this one being the most important:

Where did all of the different races and cultures that we see today come from? From those eight people came the Chinese, the Africans, the Europeans, the Indians, the American Indians, the Aztecs, the Aborigines, the Vikings, the Eskimos, the Greeks, the Romans and so on. Apparently they all came from these eight people.

Starting from scratch in 2348 BCE, how could all of those races and cultures arise? It is, of course, impossible for a variety of reasons, but let’s gloss over it for now.

As you continue thinking about it, the questions keep coming. For example, how did Noah build the boat? How could four men and four women find, harvest, season, transport, cut, shape, assemble and seal all of the trees needed for a ship 450 feet long and 75 feet wide? That is a huge ship. For comparison, the Mayflower (which brought the Pilgrims from England to America) was only about 95 feet long, 25 feet wide and displaced 180 tons. [ref] The Mayflower was a big boat able to hold over 100 people, but it was a pipsqueak compared to the ark.

Using the simplest multiplication, the ark would encompass about 14 Mayflowers, and would therefore weigh at least 5 million pounds. However, because the ark is so much larger, it would have to be far stronger than the Mayflower, making it far heavier. The very largest ships built at the height of the wooden shipbuilding era (the late 1800s) had a maximum keel length of about 250 feet, and the ark is nearly twice that big. This was an amazing vessel. And it was all built by four men and four women.

It is impossible to imagine that eight people could build a boat that big. It is also impossible to imagine a 450 foot long wooden vessel. But let’s gloss over that.

Perhaps God helped? But if God were going to help, he would simply manifest a boat from thin air. There is no need for Noah to build it as described in the Bible.

What about the animals, and all of their food? There are about 1.75 million known species of plants and animals (mammals, birds, insects, etc.) crawling around on the planet today, so they must have all been on the ark. There may be more than 10 million species total — scientists do not really know because we have come nowhere close to cataloging all of the species found on earth. [ref] We don’t think about this because we are not biologists, but there are a lot more species on the planet today than most people realize. There are, for example, 20 differences species of vultures. Just vultures. There are 23 species of crocodilians. There are 40,000 species of spiders. And so on. And they all have highly specialized diets. Imagine 40,000 little spider cages, and imagine feeding all 40,000 pairs of spiders. Along with all 160,000 species of moths. And all 17,500 species of butterflies. [ref] And all 350,000 species of beetles. Etc.

Is the boat big enough to hold millions of species? No. And it is definitely not big enough to hold all of the food they need for hundreds of days. For example, one panda bear needs about 30 pounds of fresh bamboo every day — not something readily available on a boat unless you have a large bamboo grove handy. Similarly, koala bears need fresh eucalyptus leaves. Walruses eat fish and lots of them. Lions eat antelope. Vultures eat carrion. One elephant eats something like 100 pounds of food per day. And so on.

All of that food also means a whole lot of manure and urine. Imagine mucking out a barn that holds millions of animals. Could eight people do it? Certainly not.

Then there is the commute. How did all of the animals found on the far corners of the planet today commute to the Middle East to board the ark? For example, how did pairs of kangaroos, koala bears, etc. commute thousands of miles (not to mention the treacherous ocean crossing) from Australia to the ark? How did walruses and polar bears and penguins make it? What about all of the specialized species in the South American rain forests? In South America, there are 130 species of legionary ants (forget all the other kinds of ants) that we know of. How did they get to Noah? Then they also had to commute back. And they all had to eat their highly specialized foods along the way.

Then there is the DNA. There is no evidence in the DNA record that every animal species on the planet came from a single breeding pair that started reproducing 4,350 years ago. The amount of inbreeding in every species (along with the human species) would be tremendous.

And what about the plants? All of them would be killed too by many months underwater. It would take awhile for things like eucalyptus trees and bamboo groves to grow back, assuming their seeds survived the floods.

The problem with the water

Let’s assume that all of these problems can be glossed over. The big problem that remains is the water. The Bible states quite plainly that:

“[The waters] rose greatly on the earth, and all the high mountains under the entire heavens were covered. The waters rose and covered the mountains to a depth of more than twenty feet."

No ambiguity here. And there is no reason for God to lie about it. Mt. Everest was 20 feet underwater.

The peak of Mount Everest rises about 29,000 feet above sea level — nearly five and a half miles high. That means that the earth was covered, in its entirety, with water 5.5 miles deep. This creates several important problems:

  • Where did all this water (approximately 10 times more water than there is on earth today) come from, and where did it all go?
  • If you assume that God magically imported the water from somewhere and then took it away again, you still have a problem with the fish. If God imported 5.5 miles of fresh water, the fresh water would have killed all of the salt water fish species.
  • Then there is the immense water pressure. Five miles of water creates more than 12,000 PSI of water pressure at sea level.
  • Finally there’s the problem with Egypt and other ancient cultures. The Great Pyramid, for example, was built between 2600 BCE and 2500 BCE. Noah’s flood occurred 200 years after that. It is obvious that the Great Pyramid never was flooded underneath five miles of water.
  • And so on…

To handle the fish, the ark would need immense fish tanks. If you have ever been to a big public aquarium, or Sea World, or even a pet store, you know that: a) there are a lot of different kinds of fish, and b) fish tanks need a lot of sophisticated filtration equipment. How, exactly, did Noah build all the tanks, and power all the filters? Not to mention how the fish got there — did they walk onto the ark two by two? Or did they swim through the air?

Let’s say you are willing to suspend all your disbelief around all these myriad problems with the story. Let’s assume that the flood actually did happen. If you are willing to go that far into the realm of the imaginary, then you end up asking a different set of questions:

  • Why would God be displeased with the way humans turned out, to the extent that he would need to exterminate every living plant and animal on the planet? If God is all-knowing, then he knew exactly what he was doing when he created Adam and Eve (see Understanding Original Sin). If God is perfect, he would have no choice but to create humans right the first time.
  • Let’s say that our perfect, all-knowing God made a mistake and was displeased with people for whatever reason, and he needed to exterminate them. That’s impossible, but let’s say it happened. Why not simply kill the people, and leave the rest of the plants and animals alone? God shows in the book of Exodus that it is incredibly easy for him to selectively kill humans instantly and in massive numbers. For example, God kills only the first born children of only the Egyptians in Exodus chapter 11. Why not kill off all the evil humans in exactly the same way, rather than wiping the entire planet clean?
  • Let’s say God decided that he wanted to wipe the planet clean, and that he wanted to use a worldwide flood for whatever reason. Then why did Noah need to build the boat? Why wouldn’t God create a boat out of carbon nanotubes or transparent aluminum, with all the specialized compartments and tanks that the boat would need for all of the animals, fish and food? The nice side effect of these advanced materials is that Noah’s Ark would still be here today for all to see with our own eyes.

Explaining the flood

A religious person, hearing about all of these myriad problems with the story of Noah in the Bible, might try to engage you in a conversation like this:

Chris: There is no problem with the story of the flood in the Bible. The Bible was translated incorrectly. For example, in the Hebrew the word for world, ‘erets’, could also be translated as ‘land’ rather than ‘world.’ So you see, the Bible is actually correct. The flood only covered ‘the land,’ not the whole world.

Norm: Why didn’t an all-knowing God choose a word that is unambiguous?

Chris: Well, in Hebrew there is not an unambiguous word to use.

Normal person: Didn’t God create all the languages of the earth at the Tower of Babel? Why didn’t a perfect God create languages that are unambiguous and solve the problem of word choice in that way?

Chris: It was not his will to do so.

Norm: Then why didn’t God inspire the translator and make sure that he got the translation right?

Chris: That would violate the translator’s free will.

Norm: Then didn’t God rather drastically violate the free will of the men who wrote the Bible?

Chris: No. You see, the men who wrote the Bible were different because…

Norm: Forget it. Let’s just assume that you are right. When God chose the word “erets" in the Hebrew he meant the “whole land" rather than the “whole earth." That’s fine. Mount Ararat, where the ark is said in the Bible to have come to rest, is over 16,000 feet tall — nearly three miles. It, according to the Bible, was 20 feet under water. We all know that water spreads out — it seeks its own level. So if you dump enough water on one country to cover Mount Ararat, then that means the whole world is covered with three miles of water, and we are right back where we started.

Chris: No, that’s not right. You see, God is all-powerful, and he is able to constrain the water to a single land. So only one small part of the earth was covered three miles deep.

Norm: What, you are saying that God erected a gigantic wall around the Middle East — he created the world’s biggest above-ground swimming pool three miles deep?

Chris: No, he did not actually have to build a wall…

Norm: Why is there no evidence for a 3-mile deep flood in the middle east 4,350 years ago?

Chris: You are wrong…

Admit it. You have heard conversations like this and they are utterly ridiculous. The Christian is making things up out of thin air. The Bible, allegedly, was written by the all-knowing, all-powerful creator of the universe. Why in the world can’t such a being get a story straight in the Bible?

If an all-knowing and all-powerful God wrote the Bible, then why are we having to create so many excuses for what he wrote, and come up with so many incredibly convoluted explanations to cover the myriad problems in his stories? Why didn’t God simply write the truth to begin with? Any conversation about Noah’s ark quickly becomes ridiculous like this because the whole story is ridiculous from beginning to end. Noah’s flood, quite simple, never happened.

The meaning of the story

Any intelligent person also sees something far more sinister in the Noah story. If you accept that God wrote the Bible, and if you accept that he put the story of Noah in the Bible for a reason, then let’s focus on the central message in the story — that God exterminated every living human being on the planet except for eight chosen people, and God exterminated all other living things except for the animal pairs on the boat. God’s central message in the Noah story is total annihilation. Millions of men, women and children were massacred, along with billions of plants and animals.

Compare this behavior to Hitler. At the time of Hitler’s reign, there were approximately 18 million Jewish people on the planet. Hitler killed six million of them — roughly a third. What words do we use to describe Hitler? We use nouns like monster, demon and fiend, and we use adjectives like abominable, disgusting, repugnant, nauseating, detestable, horrible and revolting.

So why don’t we apply those same nouns and adjectives to God? What God did is far worse than what Hitler did. Normal people therefore ask, “Why in the world would anyone worship a being far more horrible and monstrous than Hitler?" It makes absolutely no sense.

The real story

So let’s admit it — the story of Noah and the flood is not true. Choose whatever combination of impossibilities you like, from the food storage space on the ark, to the manure removal problem, to the commute that all the animals had to make, to the fish tank filters. An all-knowing, all-loving, prayer-answering God did not cover the earth in water 5.5 miles (or 3 miles) deep and exterminate everything. There was no ark. There was no death of every living plant and animal, followed by a resurgence from single breeding pairs of every species. 130 species of legionary ants did not swim over from South America and then swim back, nor did the kangaroos, nor did the polar bears. And so on. It did not happen. If you want to believe it that’s fine, but we can safely write you off as a nut case.

What does this mean? It means that what we have here is a fanciful legend that is clearly untrue. When you look at Noah’s flood, as it is described by the Bible, it is obvious that it did not happen. This is not a case where we need to bring in scientists and experts to disprove it based on little tiny details. This story is clearly and provably untrue to any intelligent person because it is absurd on the broadest, most obvious levels.

Continuing to use your common sense, what does this tell you about the Bible as a whole? Was the Bible written by a perfect and all-knowing being, or was it written by primitive goat herders? Given that the story of Noah is a fictional legend and nothing more, what it means is that the Bible — the entire Bible — is a collection of stories written by primitive men. God had nothing to do with it. Either God wrote the entire Bible, or he wrote none of it, because we have no way to know which parts God did and did not write.

More importantly, whether true of not, you realize that the Bible’s central message about God is that God is a reprehensible monster far worse than Hitler. God ruthlessly murdered millions of men, women and children for no reason.

Christians willingly worship this monster.

What do you make of all of this? Here are two points of view for you to consider:

  1. The Bible is the word of the Lord. Despite all of the evidence (genetic, geological, geographical, paleontological, forensic, archeological and historic) that Noah’s flood and the ark never occurred, you still believe steadfastly that it did. You believe that God intentionally exterminated nearly every living thing on the planet. You openly worship this reprehensible monster.
  2. The story of Noah is a fanciful legend. The Bible was written by men, not by God.

Which point of view makes more sense to you?

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