Archive for 2011 年 02 月

愛情不是蜜,不是膠, 卻可把兩個人牢牢黏住.

愛情不是蜜,不是膠, 卻可把兩個人牢牢黏住.

愛情不是蜜,不是膠, 卻可把兩個人牢牢黏住. ~ 何宗陽

 

 

斯密約瑟被監禁迦太基監獄的原因

斯密約瑟被監禁迦太基監獄的原因

An etching of the Carthage Jail, c. 1885

Hit by a ball, Smith fell from the second story window

 

回應文 章:  斯密約瑟實行一夫多妻的方式http://blog.udn.com/lofranklo/4796967

回應如下:

斯密約瑟不是"因違反美國言論自由的立國精神等理由被捕(見維基百科)"

是先因被指控煽動暴亂罪(June 10, 1844摧毀印刷場。緣由: June 7 納府解說者報刊載斯密約瑟的一夫多妻情事; 斯密約瑟讓納府市議會在1844年6月10日通過了決議聲稱該報紙是 Public Nuisance(公共騷擾妨害),並下令摧毀該報紙的印刷廠)。

伊利諾伊州州長托馬斯福特提出了一個由非摩門教陪審團在迦太基的審判,並保證斯密約瑟的安全。(托馬斯福特在斯密約瑟過逝後曾說,斯密約瑟是“在近代最成功的騙子“He said Smith was “the most successful impostor in modern times,")

1844年6月25日,斯密約瑟和斯密海侖,連同其他十五個市議會成員和一些朋友,主動向迦太基監獄警官William Bettisworth投降被監禁。

市議會成員下午交保候審。

斯密約瑟被續監禁候審乃是另因叛國罪(June 18伊利諾州納府市長的斯密約瑟宣布戒嚴)  。

參閱: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_of_Joseph_Smith,_Jr.#cite_ref-HoLDS_0-0

一個人不能事奉兩個主。(幽"摩門教一夫多妻制"一默)

一個人不能事奉兩個主。(幽"摩門教一夫多妻制"一默)

不事二主 
  

摩門教徒是基督教的一個教派,主張一夫多妻制。一次,馬克·吐溫與一位摩門教就一夫多妻問題展開爭論。摩門教徒說:「你能在《聖經》中找到一句禁止一夫多妻的話嗎?」 
  「當然可以,」馬克·吐溫說,「馬太福音第六章  第二十四節說:『一個人不能事奉兩個主』。」

Following photo: The wives  of  Brigham Young,  second President/Prophet of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Mormon Polygamy Facts That Cause Some LDS Folk to Struggle  mormonstories.org

 

Supporting Facts Derived 100% from Church-Friendly Sources

Following photo: The wives and children of Joseph F. Smith, Prophet of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, circa 1900.

Polygamous Family

The basic facts are as follows:

  • 1831 — Joseph Smith receives plural marriage revelation, though it remains unrecorded.
  • Between 1833 – 1835 — Joseph marries Fanny Alger.
  • 1835 — In the 1835 version of the D&C, Section 101:4 , it declares, “Inasmuch as this church of Christ has been reproached with the crime of fornication, and polygamy: we declare that we believe, that one man should have one wife; and one woman, but one husband."
  • 1838 — Oliver Cowdery is excommunicated, at least in part, for accusing Joseph Smith of adultery with Fanny Alger.
  • 1841 — Joseph begins taking plural wives in earnest.
  • 1842 — Joseph attempts to take Sidney Rigdon’s daughter to wife, and she refuses. Though a member of the 1st Presidency, Rigdon never accepted the teaching of plural marriage.
  • 1842 — Church-owned Times and Seasons denies the practice of polygamy, declaring: “We declare that we believe, that one man should have one wife; and one woman, but one husband, except in case of death, when either is at liberty to marry again."
  • 1844 — By the end of his life, Joseph had married between 30 and 50 women.
  • 1844 — In the History of the Church Vol. 6, Joseph Smith denies practicing polygamy. “What a thing it is for a man to be accused of committing adultery, and having seven wives, when I can only find one."
  • June 7, 1844 — William Law, 2nd counselor in the 1st presidency, leaves the church over polygamy and Joseph’s denial of it. Soon thereafter, he publishes the 1st and only edition of the Nauvoo Expositor, which claims 1st-hand testimony from several sources that Joseph was practicing polygamy, counter to his public denials.
  • June 11, 1844 — Joseph orders the destruction of the Nauvoo Expositor printing press
  • June 25, 1844 — Joseph’s ordered destruction of the printing press catalyzed events that ultimately resulted in his being jailed for Treason.
  • June 27, 1844 — Joseph and Hyrum martyred
  • 1845 — Times and Seasons again denies the practice of polygamy
  • 1851 — Brigham Young acknowledges polygamy in a meeting of the Utah Legislature. Brigham Young declares before the Territorial Legislature, “I have more wives than one. I have many and I am not ashamed to have it known. Some Deny in the States that we have more wives than one. I never Deny it. I am perfectly willing that the people at Washington Should know that I have more than one wife & they are pure before the Lord and are approved of in his sight. I have been commanded of God to persue this Course. . . ."
  • 1852 — The church (perhaps for the first time?) publicly acknowledges the practice of polygamy
  • 1852 – 1890 — The U.S. Federal Government heavily pressures LDS Church to cease polygamy
  • 1866 — Brigham Young declares that, " The only men who become Gods, even the Sons of God, are those who enter into polygamy. Others attain unto a glory and may even be permitted to come into the presence of the Father and the Son; but they cannot reign as kings in glory, because they had blessing offered unto them, and they refused to accept them."
  • 1890 — Wilford Woodruff announces revelation ending the practice of polygamy
  • 1890 – 1904 — Polygamous marriages continue. A few examples of polygamous marriages made post-manifesto found on LDS church owned FamilySearch.org include: Amelia Carling to James Duffin , Hannah Grover to Victor Hegsted , Margaret Cutis to B.H. Roberts, etc. There are many, many others.
  • 1904 — LDS Church releases a “Second Manifesto“, after charges were confirmed that polygamous marriages continued despite the 1890 revelation/announcement. This article reads:
    • “During the Senate investigation in 1904 concerning the seating of Senator-elect Reed Smoot, a monogamist but a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Mormon Church President Joseph F. Smith presented what historians have called the “Second Manifesto" on 7 April 1904. It included provisions for the church to take action against those who continued to perform plural marriages and marry plural wives. Matthias Cowley and John W. Taylor, both apostles, continued to be involved in performing or advocating new plural marriages after 1904, and, as a result, Cowley was disfellowshipped and Taylor excommunicated from the church. In 1909 a committee of apostles met to investigate post-Manifesto polygamy, and by 1910 the church had a new policy. Those involved in plural marriages after 1904 were excommunicated; and those married between 1890 and 1904 were not to have church callings where other members would have to sustain them. Although the Mormon Church officially prohibited new plural marriages after 1904, many plural husbands and wives continued to cohabit until their deaths in the 1940s and 1950s."
  • 1998 — During an interview with Larry King on CNN, when asked about polygamy, President Hinckley stated:
    • “I condemn it, yes, as a practice, because I think it is not doctrinal. It is not legal. And this church takes the position that we will abide by the law. We believe in being subject to kings, presidents, rulers, magistrates in honoring, obeying, and sustaining the law."
  • 2007 — The doctrine of Plural marriage remains on the books, as LDS scripture, in the Doctrine and Covenants, Section 132.
    •   61 And again, as pertaining to the law of the priesthood—if any man espouse a virgin, and desire to espouse another, and the first give her consent, and if he espouse the second, and they are virgins, and have vowed to no other man, then is he justified; he cannot commit adultery for they are given unto him; for he cannot commit adultery with that that belongeth unto him and to no one else.
    •   62 And if he have ten virgins given unto him by this law, he cannot commit adultery, for they belong to him, and they are given unto him; therefore is he justified.

References

THE books on Mormon Polygamy:

Church Publications:

Apologetic:

Anti-Mormon:

Neutral:

摩門經 & 摩門教義 的 靈感抄襲來源。 (內有文章!!!—-天下文章一大抄!!!)

摩門經 & 摩門教義 的 靈感抄襲來源(內有文章!!!—-天下文章一大抄!!!)

        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18世紀共濟會入會儀式

 
John He 編制

本文是  摩門教初驗不合格:耶穌基督後期聖徒教會(俗稱摩門教)的拱心石—-《摩門經》的「真實性」有超重大疑義,經不起檢驗。   及 摩門經的真正作者是誰? —-斯伯丁-雷格登 是 摩門經作者理論。的延伸補充。

摩門經 & 摩門教義 的 靈感抄襲來源 (內有文章!!!—-天下文章一大抄!!!) 

 

1823 Ethan Smith牧師《對希伯來人的看法—-書中呼籲將美洲原住民正視為以色列失去的支族並將他們帶回基督教群體 1823年底特律手稿(是用真正古典愛爾蘭文寫作的)。(Richard B. Stout 『A Singular Discovery』The Evangel 2001-02理查德斯托特“一個奇異的發現“播道2001-02)底特律手稿是1823年被亞伯拉罕愛德華茲上校Col. Abraham Edwards 發現的,而愛德華的生意夥伴斯蒂芬麥克Stephen Mack恰巧是斯密約瑟的叔叔,也是考得里奧利佛的親戚。 所羅門斯伯丁歷史小說的手稿 雷格登瑟耐從匹茲堡出版者獲得了所羅門斯伯丁歷史小說的手稿。該理論聲稱,小說包含了摩門經中的“歷史的部分“,雷格登瑟耐重新工作,加上他自己的神學,並擴大到目前的摩門經作品。 雷格登瑟耐自己的神學及坎貝爾學說 雷格登瑟耐重新工作,加上他自己的神學,並擴大到目前的摩門經作品。 共濟會的入會儀式 

共濟會(1830年代)和摩門教恩道門(1940年前)的儀式相似性SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE FREEMASONRY OF THE 1830s
and
THE MORMON ENDOWMENT (pre-1940)
By Richard Packham

Emanuel Swedenborg伊曼紐·斯威登堡1758的《天堂與地獄》 
            ↓↓↓                     ↓↓↓                         ↓↓↓                  ↓↓↓              ↓↓↓              ↓↓↓
對希伯來人的看法》提供了文章種子。最終成品—-就是摩門經紀錄了三個古代美洲的文明,並且其中之一的拉曼人被認為是「今日美洲的印地安人的主要先祖 底特律古老的手稿是斯密約瑟故事的顯而易見的及邏輯性的來源 最終成品—-就是摩門經的“出現“和在” 安東抄本 “上的“標誌和符號“故意誤定為“改良埃及文。“ 所羅門斯伯丁歷史小說的手稿提供了文章架構。所有表示熟悉斯伯丁所寫的虛構小說的人 似乎知道摩門經的內容,即使他們從來沒有見過一本摩門經。 最終成品—-就是在摩門經中找到的多處坎貝爾Campbellite學說留痕就表明了雷格登瑟耐早期參與的證據。 最終成品—-就是—秘密的聖殿儀式(恩道門)斯密約瑟於1842年5月引入的,是在他參加共濟會的入會儀式(March 15 1842)– 進入共濟會約兩個月之後。耶穌基督後期聖徒教會的聖殿儀式與當時的共濟會入會儀式幾乎一樣。 奎恩邁克爾D. Michael Quinn在他的書中《早期摩門教和魔術的世界觀》提出,Emanuel Swedenborg伊曼紐·斯威登堡1758的《天堂與地獄》影響了小斯密約瑟在創作教義和聖約第76章有關摩門教的來世觀。

猶太人與其他古代民族突出不同之點.

猶太人與其他古代民族突出不同之點.

猶太人與其他古代民族突出不同之點是他們的頑強的民族自尊心。其他民族,在一旦遭受征服後,都曾表裡一致地屈服於戰勝者。只有猶太人保持了他們那種唯我獨尊的信仰,並確信他們的不幸是由於上帝的忿怒,因為他們沒能保持住信仰與教義的純潔。

詳見: 伯特蘭·羅素:耶利米和以西結創始發明了一種想法—認為除了唯一的宗教以外,其餘的一切宗教都是邪惡的偽教,同時主神耶和華是要懲罰偶像崇拜的。

耶穌基督後期聖徒教會(俗稱摩門教)是18、19世紀基督教改革運動中復原運動的產物。

 耶穌基督後期聖徒教會(俗稱摩門教)是1819世紀基督教改革運動中復原運動的產物

    

 

John  He 編著整理

本文是  摩門教初驗不合格:耶穌基督後期聖徒教會(俗稱摩門教)的拱心石—-《摩門經》的「真實性」有超重大疑義,經不起檢驗。   的延伸補充。

基本上,現今的耶穌基督後期聖徒教會(俗稱摩門教)是是後期聖徒運動宗派中被稱為摩爾門教的最大的一個群體。其餘宗派分支尚有重組後的耶穌基督後期聖徒教會, 基督社區, 基督的教會 (聖殿基地), 耶穌基督的教會 (比克頓派), 耶穌基督後期聖徒教會 (斯特朗派), 基本教義派的耶穌基督後期聖徒教會 等等。

在斯密約瑟死後,教會內的繼承危機造成了教會的分裂,產生了數個後期聖徒的宗派,並瓜分了原來教會的教友。而當時的十二使徒定額組會長 Brigham Young(楊百翰)宣稱自己才是真正的繼承人,原來教會的教友其中最大的一群接受了楊百翰Brigham Young)作為新的總會會長暨先知,並帶領了信眾西移到現今美國猶他州的鹽湖城,這就是 耶穌基督後期聖徒教會(俗稱摩門教

教會總部在美國猶他州鹽湖城,它的現任總會會長是多馬·孟蓀。根據2009年12月31日教會公佈的數字,教會有1382萬4854名教友(好像也不少啊, 但也可以說是世上每一千人有九百九十八人不接受它),當中有670萬名在美國以外地區居住,其馀約600萬人在美國本土居住,是美國第四大的宗教團體。

 

19世紀早期美國宗教運動發展史來看,摩門教是後期聖徒運動產物

後期聖徒運動(英语:Latter Day Saint movement)是從19世紀早期由美國東北部開始的宗教運動,普遍被認為是在該運動中被認為是先知的小約瑟·斯密開始的。

這個運動是復原主義(Restorationism)中的數個運動之一,復原主義中包括復原運動(或譯恢復運動)(Restoration Movement)和米勒派運動(Millerite Movement)。復原運動(或譯恢復運動)(Restoration Movement)是一個18、19世紀,在美國第二次大覺醒期間的基督教改革運動。這些復原主義者嘗試超越基督新教的宗派主義。並且將基督教精神恢復更趨近他們認為真正的《聖經·新約》,恢復聖經裏的教會樣式,促進在聖經真理的基礎上的合一,廢除一切晚近神學名稱及教會組織等。與基督新教相比,他們更加像基要派。主要領導人物包括亞歷山大·坎伯(Alexander Campbell)和伯通·史東(Burton Stone)等。

復原運動(或譯恢復運動)的關鍵原則

  • 基督教不應被分割:基督只建立了一個教會。
  • 基督徒合一的基礎是聖經真理,不是人的意見。
  • 基督徒應該在早期教會的樣式上找到共同點,不是教會人為的傳統。
  • 教會的名稱應用聖經裡的名稱,不是人名(反對「衛斯理宗」或「路德宗」等的名稱)。

 

後期聖徒運動是其中突出的一支宗派,有些包括了一組被統稱為摩門主義(摩門教)的教義、實踐行動和文化,另外一些則不認同「摩門」這個稱呼。

復原運動(或譯恢復運動) 主要領導人物亞歷山大·坎伯(Alexander Campbell)和後來成為早期摩門教最有影響力的雷格登瑟耐有著深厚關係。許多歷史學家都認為在早期歷史的後期聖徒運動中,雷格登瑟耐的影響力是與摩門教創始人斯密約瑟不相上下的。

雷格登瑟耐1821 年去見亞歷山大坎貝爾Alexander Campbell,他們做了長時間的討論,這導致兩人加入坎貝爾運動。雷格登瑟耐成為一個在匹茲堡教會受歡迎的恢復運動Restoration Movement牧師。然而,一些心懷不滿的成員能夠迫使他於 1824年辭職。

後來,………….. 老謀深算,心機狡猾, 喜作幕後操控者的雷格登瑟耐可說是看不見的”天使” 摩羅乃,是斯密約瑟背後的影武者,是摩門經背後的藏鏡人,是後期聖徒運動的創導者,是早期摩門教的幕後操控者。

最近(2008年)的一個計算機分析摩門經文本支持這一理論(斯伯丁雷格登 摩門經作者理論。),儘管該研究不包括小斯密約瑟的提交樣品,因為斯密約瑟的寫作純正例子尚未被發現的。2008年的計算機分析是 把摩門經純文字與,概率很高的可能的作家的文字相比,可能的作家包括斯伯丁,雷格登,和考得里奧利佛,結論是“我們的分析支持該理論認為,摩門經是由多個十九世紀的作家所寫,更確切地說,我們發現強烈支持斯伯丁雷格登著作理論。在所有的數據中,我們發現雷格登是作為統一的力量。他的訊號主宰了摩門經,而若是其他候選人有更多的可能時,雷格登往往也是隱藏在陰影裡。“該研究並未包括斯密約瑟為一個可能的作家,理由是,因為斯密約瑟的寫作純正例子尚未被發現的,由於斯密約瑟是使用抄寫文士和合著者,目前並無文字可確定是斯密約瑟自已寫的。[Jockers et al., Reassessing authorship of the Book of Mormon using delta and nearest shrunken centroid classification, Literary and Linguistic Computing, December, 2008]

根據這斯伯丁雷格登 摩門經作者理論觀點,雷格登瑟耐從匹茲堡出版者獲得了所羅門斯伯丁歷史小說的手稿。該理論聲稱,小說包含了摩門經中的“歷史的部分“,雷格登瑟耐重新工作,加上他自己的神學,並擴大到目前的摩門經作品。

在摩門經中找到的多處坎貝爾Campbellite學說留痕就表明了雷格登瑟耐早期參與的證據。

如有興趣知道  斯伯丁雷格登 摩門經作者理論細節。

請詳見: 摩門經的真正作者是誰? —-斯伯丁-雷格登 是 摩門經作者理論。

《摩門經》經不起 「計算機分析文本」(「作家文筆風格」)的檢驗—-摩門經是由多個十九世紀的作家所寫(斯伯丁-雷格登著作理論)。

《摩門經》經不起  「計算機分析文本」(「作家文筆風格」)的檢驗—-摩門經是由多個十九世紀的作家所寫(斯伯丁雷格登著作理論)

 Fig. 2  Fig. 7    

John  He  

本文是  摩門教初驗不合格:耶穌基督後期聖徒教會(俗稱摩門教)的拱心石—-《摩門經》的「真實性」有超重大疑義,經不起檢驗。   及 摩門經的真正作者是誰? —-斯伯丁-雷格登 是 摩門經作者理論。的延伸補充。

最近(2008年)的一個計算機分析摩門經文本支持這一理論,儘管該研究不包括小斯密約瑟的提交樣品,因為斯密約瑟的寫作純正例子尚未被發現的。2008年的計算機分析是 把摩門經純文字與,概率很高的可能的作家的文字相比,可能的作家包括斯伯丁,雷格登,和考得里奧利佛,結論是“我們的分析支持該理論認為,摩門經是由多個十九世紀的作家所寫,更確切地說,我們發現強烈支持斯伯丁雷格登著作理論。在所有的數據中,我們發現雷格登是作為統一的力量。他的訊號主宰了摩門經,而若是其他候選人有更多的可能時,雷格登往往也是隱藏在陰影裡。“該研究並未包括斯密約瑟為一個可能的作家,理由是,因為斯密約瑟的寫作純正例子尚未被發現的,由於斯密約瑟是使用抄寫文士和合著者,目前並無文字可確定是斯密約瑟自已寫的。[Jockers et al., Reassessing authorship of the Book of Mormon using delta and nearest shrunken centroid classification, Literary and Linguistic Computing, December, 2008]

 

The prominence of the Rigdon and Spalding signals are significant and provide strong support for the Spalding-Rigdon authorship theory: that Rigdon acquired one or more manuscripts written by Spalding and then modified them, by incorporating his own theology, to create the 1830 version of the Book of Mormon

 

 

原文之 摘要與結論:

摘要Abstract

Mormon prophet Joseph Smith (1805–44) claimed that more than two-dozen ancient individuals (Nephi, Mormon, Alma, etc.) living from around 2200 BC to 421 AD authored the Book of Mormon (1830), and that he translated their inscriptions into English. Later researchers who analyzed selections from the Book of Mormon concluded that differences between selections supported Smith’s claim of multiple authorship and ancient origins. We offer a new approach that employs two classification techniques: ‘delta’ commonly used to determine probable authorship and ‘nearest shrunken centroid’ (NSC), a more generally applicable classifier. We use both methods to determine, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, the probability that each of seven potential authors wrote or contributed to the Book of Mormon. Five of the seven have known or alleged connections to the Book of Mormon, two do not, and were added as controls based on their thematic, linguistic, and historical similarity to the Book of Mormon. Our results indicate that likely nineteenth century contributors were Solomon Spalding, a writer of historical fantasies; Sidney Rigdon, an eloquent but perhaps unstable preacher; and Oliver Cowdery, a schoolteacher with editing experience. Our findings support the hypothesis that Rigdon was the main architect of the Book of Mormon and are consistent with historical evidence suggesting that he fabricated the book by adding theology to the unpublished writings of Spalding (then deceased).

結論Conclusions

NSC has proved highly useful for authorship classification. It has a lower cross-validation error rate than delta, a lower rate of false positive assignments, and a probability-based output that enabled in-depth interpretation of the results, including speculation regarding possible connections between candidate authors. The NSC results are consistent with the Spalding-Rigdon theory of authorship. Evidence supporting this conclusion includes the prominence of signals for Spalding and Rigdon; the presence of strong Spalding signals in sections of the Book of Mormon previously linked to Spalding; the presence of a dominant Rigdon signal in most theological sections, and a strong Spalding signal in the more secular, narrative sections. Our findings are consistent with historical scholarship indicating a central role for Rigdon in securing and modifying a now-missing Spalding manuscript. The high number of Spalding-Rigdon pairings in first and second place strongly suggests that Spalding and Rigdon were responsible for a large part of the text. Pearson’s chi-square test of independence was performed and indicates that the distribution of first-place assignments is significantly different from uniform (P < 2 × 10−16). Similarly, the distribution of second-place assignments differs significantly from uniform (P < 2 × 10−16). Clearly, far more chapters are attributed to Rigdon, Spalding, and Isaiah-Malachi than might be expected due to mere chance. Other connections detected through this work are also consistent with the historical record, including the likelihood of a lesser, largely editorial role for Cowdery and a possibly minor, if unexpected, role for Pratt.

Based on this evidence, we find the original claims of Howe (1834, 1977) and the more recent assertions of Cowdrey and coworkers quite plausible; it seems likely that the 1830 version of the Book of Mormon was the creation of Sidney Rigdon, a Reformed Baptist Preacher, who had motives, means, and opportunity to carry out the project (Cowdrey et al., 2005). We acknowledge that because our samples of Rigdon prose all come after 1830, some could argue that Rigdon’s prose was influenced by the Book of Mormon and not vice versa. To raise such an objection, however, one would have to argue that Rigdon was so influenced by the Book of Mormon that he consciously or unconsciously adopted, even internalized, the most subtle and unremarkable linguistic patterns found in certain portions of the text, but not in others.

Prior exposure to the Book of Mormon most certainly did not influence Solomon Spalding who died fourteen years before it was published. Yet our data strongly support the historical claim that a lost Spalding manuscript served as a source text for the backbone narrative of the Book of Mormon. The document that we used for samples of Spalding’s writing (‘Manuscript Story’ also known as ‘The Oberlin Manuscript’) does not match the eyewitness descriptions of ‘Manuscript Found’, the draft novel that Spalding read to friends and family in Conneaut, nor does it match the Book of Mormon.49 The Spalding-Rigdon theory rests heavily on the assumption that additional Spalding manuscripts once existed, and that material from one of these manuscripts provided the narrative framework for the Book of Mormon. This additional manuscript would be the one that the Conneaut witnesses and others identified as being the ‘source’ of the Book of Mormon. While not that manuscript, the Oberlin Manuscript nevertheless provides us with a reliable sample of Spalding’s prose and the linguistic signal detected in it appears with significant regularity throughout the Book of Mormon.

Of course, we have not considered every possible candidate-author who may have influenced the composition of the Book of Mormon. We have, however, selected from among the most likely candidates, excepting perhaps Joseph Smith. In the case of Joseph Smith, we had no reliable samples of prose to test. When reliably identified materials become available, their addition to this analysis would be worth considering. An effort to compile such writings is currently underway.50

Knowledge of who likely constructed the Book of Mormon has significant implications for scholarship in Mormon history and for religious and cultural studies generally, as it addresses the foundation of an emerging world religion now estimated at thirteen million members. Our analysis supports the theory that the Book of Mormon was written by multiple, nineteenth-century authors, and more specifically, we find strong support for the Spalding-Rigdon theory of authorship. In all the data, we find Rigdon as a unifying force. His signal dominates the book, and where other candidates are more probable, Rigdon is often hiding in the shadows.