橄欖油的等级和分类

      台糖Extra Virgin頂級橄欖油750ml

根據國際橄欖油協會的说明,“通常把橄欖油分類為三大类分别是:温和(清和、淡素或‘黃油狀’);半果香(味較濃、橄欖味道較重);果香(味道濃厚、全熟的橄欖油)。”按照橄榄质量,榨出的橄榄油质量也不一样。现代工业榨油方法一般会采用工业萃取法将油快速分离。

  • 超純淨油:這是最上等的橄欖油。它是從上等橄欖榨取而成的,無需用溶媒提取。一般稱為“低温榨油”,因為它是在室温下榨取出來的。它含游離脂肪酸極低。這種脂肪酸能破壞橄欖油的味道。超純淨的橄欖油味道芳香,種類繁多。
  • 純淨油:跟超純淨油的製法一樣,但它含有較多游離脂肪酸。
  • 橄欖油:某些“低温榨油”因含酸量高,加上本身的味道、色澤或香味不足,以致不宜食用。製造商於是加上溶媒,以精煉這類橄欖油。隨後再加熱而將溶媒清除。以這個方法所製的油大致上已無色無味。這種精煉再與優質的純淨橄欖油混合。製造商以往把這類混合油標明為“純橄欖油”出售,但自1991年起已停止使用這個名稱。現在一律簡稱為“橄欖油”。
  • 橄欖渣油:橄欖經過機械和人工處理後,其中的油分和水分均已提取出來,最後只剩下果渣。使用溶媒能够從果渣中抽出額外的油分。這類油再經精煉後,便會與較優質的純淨橄欖油混合。
  • 淡橄欖油:它不屬於橄欖油等級的一種。它其實是由精煉橄欖油與少量純淨橄欖油混合而成的。它之所謂“淡”與油中的脂肪含量沒有多大關係,因為橄欖油全部都是脂肪。淡橄欖油在色澤、香味和味道方面都略遜一籌。

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橄欖油種類分為Extra Virgin頂級橄欖油、Pure純級橄欖油、Light Olive Oil淡味橄欖油、橄欖油渣等四種等級,其中最大差別在於酸度。

Extra Virgin頂級橄欖油酸度在1%以下,係第一道初榨的最高等級橄欖油,並以人工摘取橄欖,且於摘下24小時之內清洗、烘乾,再將果實打碎、擠壓,過濾乾淨,完全無添加任何化學成分與使用任何化學方式製造,而製造過程必須在攝氏30度以內 冷壓的溫度製造。歐盟組織規定,Extra Virgin 頂級橄欖油的過氧化價須低於20%,酸度在1%以下。

Pure純級橄欖油製造過程與頂級橄欖油相同,只是所使用的橄欖原料,較Extra Virgin 頂級橄欖油所使用的橄欖原料略遜一籌,或是使用製造Extra Virgin 頂級橄欖油之後的橄欖渣及已碰傷的果實,不但需要提煉,還必須再加入少量(約5﹪)的Extra Virgin 頂級橄欖油,色澤上多呈燦爛的金黃色,酸度在2%以下。頂級與純級橄欖油最主要差別在前者未經過提煉,保留橄欖原風味,故油色深、味道濃。

補注:

資訊來自:台糖Extra Virgin頂級橄欖油750ml
108台北市萬華區艋舺大道297號2樓 台糖公司商品行銷事業部
http://www.ego888.com.tw/tsec/modules/store/store_02.jsp?store_id=A2&ProId=180&level_1=5

國際橄欖油協會(International Olive Oil Council,IOOC)確規定酸價需低於0.8%,如本文wiki:Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only, contains no more than 0.8% acidity.

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In countries that adhere to the standards of the IOOC the labels in stores show an oil’s grade.

  • Extra-virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only, contains no more than 0.8% acidity, and is judged to have a superior taste. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. It is used on salads, added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping.

◆特級橄欖油(Extra Virgin Olive Oil)

將經過篩選的橄欖,用冷壓法(cold press)提煉過濾後即可直接食用的原油,因為是直接從橄欖裡壓榨出來,未經任何淨化過程,才能冠上Virgin,所含脂肪酸不超過1%。顏色青綠,具備橄欖獨特香氣和口感,常用於冷盤、沙拉。(資訊來自:橄欖油的選購與品鑑 文.張曉卉 2001/04 康健雜誌 29期 http://www.commonhealth.com.tw/article/index.jsp?id=1949)

  • Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only, has an acidity less than 2%, and is judged to have a good taste.

◆優質橄欖油(Virgin Olive Oil)

也是用冷壓法提煉出的原油,脂肪酸含量不超過2%,市面上較少,也適合用於涼拌、冷盤。。(資訊來自:橄欖油的選購與品鑑 文.張曉卉 2001/04 康健雜誌 29期 http://www.commonhealth.com.tw/article/index.jsp?id=1949)

  • Pure olive oil. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil.

◆純淨橄欖油(Pure Olive Oil)

是以壓榨萃取的油再進行精製(Refined Olive Oil),並加入5%優質橄欖油混合而成。脂肪酸低於1.5%,是市面上最普遍的橄欖油,價格比特級橄欖油便宜,色澤金黃,口感溫和,適合煎煮炒炸。。(資訊來自:橄欖油的選購與品鑑 文.張曉卉 2001/04 康健雜誌 29期 http://www.commonhealth.com.tw/article/index.jsp?id=1949)

  • Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil, of no more than 1.5% acidity. It commonly lacks a strong flavor.
  • Olive pomace oil is refined pomace olive oil often blended with some virgin oil. It is fit for consumption, but may not be described simply as olive oil. It has a more neutral flavor than pure or virgin olive oil, making it unfashionable among connoisseurs; however, it has the same fat composition as regular olive oil, rendering it the same health benefits. It also has a high smoke point, and thus is widely used in restauraunts as well as home cooking in some countries.
  • Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food; lampante comes from olive oil’s long-standing use in oil-burning lamps. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market.
  • Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods that do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. It has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 0.3 grams per 100 grams (0.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils with a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects that are eliminated after refining. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil, but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. An obsolete equivalent is “pure olive oil".

參考文獻資  :

 

  1. 維基百科,橄欖油
  2. Wikipedia, OLive oil
  3. 橄欖油的選購與品鑑 文.張曉卉 2001/04 康健雜誌 29期 http://www.commonhealth.com.tw/article/index.jsp?id=1949
  4. 台糖Extra Virgin頂級橄欖油750ml
    108台北市萬華區艋舺大道297號2樓 台糖公司商品行銷事業部
    http://www.ego888.com.tw/tsec/modules/store/store_02.jsp?store_id=A2&ProId=180&level_1=5
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